, also known as cloacitis
, is an uncommon condition in young and adult birds. It is an avian yeast infection that can attack the whole digestive system from beak to vent, and also effect the reproductive system. It's usually caused by eating moldy food. It is sometimes confused with pasted vent, which is not caused by an infectious agent, and is common with chicks, but rare in adults.
Birds can show some or all of the following symptoms:
- Loss of energy
- Rough feathers
- Distended sour crop
- Slow growth
- Weight loss
- Decreased hunger and increased thirst
- Soiled vent feathers
- White sores near the vent
- Loss of feathers near the vent
- Reddened or swollen vent tissue
- Gray powdery or black waxy substances on the vent
- Very bad smelling droppings
- Patches in the throat that look like yeast or wax
- Unexplained laying problems
- Swollen vent
The purpose of laxatives is to flush the digestive system of toxic substances, in this case yeast.
- Molasses: Offer one pint of molasses to 5 gallons of water free-choice to the affected birds for about four hours. Treat severely affected birds individually if they cannot drink. Return the birds to regular water after the treatment period. (Solutions Used For Poultry, 2008)
- Epsom Salt: 1 lb Epsom Salt per 15 lb feed or 1 lb Epsom Salt per 5 gallons water for 1 day. Give the epsom salt feed mixture as the sole feed source for a one day period. This feed can be used only if the birds are eating. If the birds are not eating, use the water solution. If the birds are unable to eat or drink by themselves, use individual treatment with 1 teaspoon of Epsom Salt in 1 fl oz water. Feed the bird with a syringe. (Solutions Used For Poultry, 2008)
- Castor Oil: Dose individual birds with .5 oz castor oil. (Solutions Used For Poultry, 2008)
- Copper Sulfate: Sometimes used as a follow-up treatment after flushing with a laxative. Dissolve 1 oz copper sulfate and 1 tablespoon of vinegar into 15 gallons water. Use as the sole water source during the course of the disease outbreak. Copper sulfate is often referred to as "bluestone". (Solutions Used For Poultry, 2008) Copper sulfate in a single dose of greater than 1 gram is fatal.
- Potassium Permanganate: A solution of 1 tablespoon powder in 4.25 gallons water is an old remedy for diarrhea in adult chickens.
- Nystatin: 62.5-250 mg nystatin and 7.8-25 mg sodium lauryl sulfate per liter of water for 5 days. (Saif 2003)
- Garlic: Milder than chemicals, 1 clove of garlic (1/4 teaspoon dried) per gallon of water is a traditional treatment that does not effect the taste of the eggs.
Fungicides can be applied externally to the vent and around the beak to reduce sores and waxy patches.
- Sulfur: sulfur powder dusted on the vent area can greatly reduce sores and tissue buildup around the vent. Do not dust sulfur on the head. Sulfur can be found in garden centers.
- Fungal creams designed for humans, for instance for athletes' foot, can be applied to both vent and head.
Keep food sources clean, do not feed bird spoiled food, and store feed in a dry place. In young chicks, it may be caused by fungus on the surface of the egg. For future hatchings, dip the eggs in an iodine solution before incubating. (Saif 2003)
Probiotics are live beneficial gut bacteria that occur naturally in all animal digestive tracts. Various probiotics are in yogurt, liquid human probiotic solutions, or powdered livestock probiotics. If you specifically want to prevent thrush, use a probiotic that contains both Acidophilus and B. bifidum.
Acidify the water using apple cider vinegar (2 to 4 tablespoons vinegar per gallon of water) to inhibit yeast growth and up to 1 Tbsp live-culture yogurt per bird.